One area in which this typically happens is in optimization applications using designed experiments.Logistic regression with binary data is another area in which graphical residual analysis can be difficult.
The function of the incorrect alternatives is to serve as distractors,which should be selected by students who did not achieve the learning outcome but ignored by students who did achieve the learning outcome.
The key to taking advantage of these strengths, however, is construction of good multiple choice items.
A multiple choice item consists of a problem, known as the stem, and a list of suggested solutions, known as alternatives. A stem that presents a definite problem allows a focus on the learning outcome.
Validity is the degree to which a test measures the learning outcomes it purports to measure.
Because students can typically answer a multiple choice item much more quickly than an essay question, tests based on multiple choice items can typically focus on a relatively broad representation of course material, thus increasing the validity of the assessment.
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Reliability is defined as the degree to which a test consistently measures a learning outcome.